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Black individuals may be at higher risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than the general U.S. population, according to a review published online Sept. 9 in JAMA Psychiatry.

Jude Mary Cénat, Ph.D., from University of Ottawa in Ontario, Canada, and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled prevalence of ADHD and identify associated risk factors among U.S. Black individuals. Two studies assessed adults aged ≥18 years, eight assessed children aged 0 to 12 years, one assessed adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, and 13 assessed both children and adolescents.

Based on 21 published studies (154,818 Black participants), the researchers found that the pooled prevalence of ADHD was 14.54 percent. Some studies identified risk factors associated with ADHD, including sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status), familial factors, environmental factors, and risk behaviors, but the data did not permit a moderation analysis to assess these findings in this study.

“These results highlight a need to increase ADHD assessment and monitoring among Black individuals from different social backgrounds,” the authors write. “They also highlight the importance of establishing accurate diagnoses and culturally appropriate care.”

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