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A childhood diagnosis of (ADHD) is associated with an increased risk for a subsequent mental issues, according to a review published online Feb. 24 in JAMA Psychiatry.

Mikaïl Nourredine, M.D., from Hospices Civils de Lyon in France, and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies exploring the association between ADHD (diagnosed before 18 years of age) and the risk for subsequent mental disorder.

Based on 12 pooled studies (1.85 million participants), the researchers found that a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood was associated with a significant increase in the risk for subsequent mental concerns, with a pooled relative effect of 4.74. There were no significant between-group differences observed in subgroup analyses based on mental issues (odds ratio [OR], 5.04) or mental dissociation (OR, 4.59) outcomes. Results were similar by study design (cohort: OR, 4.64; case-control: OR, 6.81), as well as in adjusted (OR, 4.72) and unadjusted (OR, 3.81) analyses.

“Further studies are required to determine the mechanisms linking these common conditions and whether early intervention for ADHD might reduce the risk of subsequent mental issues,” the authors write.

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