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This systematic review discussed the complications of dental implant procedures in diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes patients. Implementation and adherence to preventive anti-infective measures under controlled glycemic conditions effectively reduces dental implant surgery complications in patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus.
Although useful for dental and oral rehabilitation, dental implant surgery is associated with increased complications. Diabetes and pre-diabetes are common health concerns with adverse outcomes on health. This systematic review, published in the International Journal of Implant Dentistry, assessed the effects of diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes on the success of dental implant surgery. The PICO question of the study was, “Do diabetic patients with dental implants have a higher complication rate compared to healthy controls?” The systematic review included a total of 16 publications and 40 clinical studies.
The study concluded that diabetes mellitus patients with poor glycemic control experience more significant dental implant surgery complications, including peri-implantitis during the post-implantation time, and demonstrate higher implant loss rates than healthy individuals. The success rates are found to be similar between healthy individuals and diabetes mellitus patients, when glycemic conditions are under control.
The standard protocol for improving success rates in dental implant surgery is administering peri-operative anti-infective therapy, which comprises the supportive administration of chlorhexidine and antibiotics. The systematic review included a few studies on the success and complications of dental implant surgery in individuals with pre-diabetes. A limited number of studies support the adverse outcomes of pre-diabetes on the development of peri-implant diseases; however, no effects on the survival of implants were indicated.
In summary, dental implant procedures in oral and dental rehabilitation are safe and effective in patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus, given that the appropriate precautions are undertaken during the operations. There are no contraindications for dental implant procedures in patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus under controlled peri-operative conditions.
Wagner, J., Spille, J. H., Wiltfang, J., & Naujokat, H. (2022). Systematic review on diabetes mellitus and dental implants: an update. Int J Implant Dent, 8(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40729-021-00399-8

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