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An increase in the number of chews and duration of chewing of carbohydrates leads to an improvement in glucose metabolism and weight loss in female patients with obesity.

Nutritional interventions, including maintenance of nutritional balance, adjustment of energy consumption, and masticatory guidance, are integral to treating and preventing obesity. This randomized controlled trial assessed the mastication intervention outcomes on the biochemical indices and body composition of obese female patients by randomly classifying the participants into conventional treatment and mastication intervention groups. The findings are published in the journal BMC Endocrine Disorders.

Characteristics of the Study and Participants

This RCT included 16 participants in the mastication intervention group and 12 in the conventional treatment group, the latter comprising usual exercise and nutritional guidance. Participants in the mastication intervention group reported a significantly higher incidence of dyslipidemia.

Masticatory Indices Changes

There was a significant difference in the chewing duration for salad across the two groups (p = 0.035). A significant increase in the number of chews and chewing duration was observed when eating salad. For donuts and rice balls, the mastication intervention group demonstrated an increase in the number of chews; however, a significant increase in the duration of chewing was only observed for rice balls.

Changes in Biochemical Indices and Body Composition

At 6 months, the mastication intervention and conventional treatment groups demonstrated a significant decrease in skeletal muscle mass, body weight, body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area, and body fat. There was a significant decrease in the body fat percentage and subcutaneous fat area in the mastication intervention and conventional treatment groups, respectively.

Significant Changes in Some Biochemical Markers

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Both groups reported a significant increase in the levels of low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein, as well as a significant decrease in the levels of hemoglobin A1c, gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase.

Effect of Mastication Intervention on Triglyceride and Glucose Levels and Obesity
The conventional treatment and mastication intervention groups showed significant decreases in triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, respectively. Compared to the usual nutritional and exercise guidance, female obese patients receiving mastication intervention demonstrated significant improvements in BMI, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, FPG, and immunoreactive insulin values.

 

Source

Hidaka, N., Kurose, S., Takao, N., Miyauchi, T., Nakajima, S., Yoshiuchi, S., Fujii, A., Takahashi, K., Tsutsumi, H., Habu, D., Taniguchi, K., & Kimura, Y. (2023). Effect of mastication evaluation and intervention on body composition and biochemical indices in female patients with obesity: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 23(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12902-023-01379-2