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This study found no association between interleukins IL-18 and IL-1α in the blood sera of patients suffering from vitiligo.

Vitiligo is described as a depigmenting disease of the skin which is marked by the occurrence of white cutaneous spots that are often symmetrical and increase with time. In patients diagnosed with vitiligo, there is no association between interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-1α in the blood serum. The findings of this case-control study are published in Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy.

Interleukin 1α Concentration Was Lower in Patients with Vitiligo

IL-1α is a pro-inflammatory mediator that is synthesized by the Langerhans cells. Keratinocytes express IL-1 receptors and store active IL-1α. In this study, the blood serum concentration of IL-1α was lower compared to controls; however, this difference was not significant. The mean concentration of IL-1α in vitiligo patients was 0.13 (±0.535) pg/ml compared to 0.51(±1.51) pg/ml in healthy controls, with the p value > 0.05.

No Significant Difference Between the Levels of IL-1α and IL-18 Among Vitiligo Patients and Healthy Controls

IL-18 promotes the process of melanogenesis. This inflammatory mediator is produced by the macrophages, keratinocytes, activated monocytes, Kupffer cells, and Langerhans cells. In this study, the mean concentrations of IL-18 in vitiligo patients and healthy controls were 141.05 (±136.33) pg/ml and 137.33 (±105.83) pg/ml with a p value > 0.05, respectively.

No Correlation Was Found Between IL-18 and IL-1α

The Spearman correlation test demonstrated no correlation between the blood serum concentrations of IL-18 and IL-1α among the vitiligo patients and healthy controls.

According to this case-control study, there is no relationship between the blood serum concentrations of IL-18 and IL-1α in patients diagnosed with vitiligo.

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Nieradko-Iwanicka, B., Przybylska, D., & Borzęcki, A. (2023). Interleukin 1α and interleukin 18 in patients with vitiligo – Results of a case-control study. Biomed Pharmacother, 160, 114364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2023.114364