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An extensive study focusing on obesity and chronic kidney disease uncovers the beneficial effects of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues, and bariatric surgery.

  • Obesity, known to drive chronic kidney disease, can cause kidney disease independently of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease.
  • Diabetes and obesity together accelerate chronic kidney disease.
  • Recent randomized controlled trials reveal the renoprotective effects of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues, and bariatric surgery in patients with diabetic kidney disease.

According to a recent study published in the Annals of Medicine, obesity serves as a substantial driver for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The research estimates that more than 10% of adults worldwide are affected by CKD, with obesity contributing to its development and progression. The study also indicates that obesity can directly cause CKD, highlighting the necessity for effective weight management strategies.

The Acceleration of Chronic Kidney Disease by Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity

The study further emphasizes that type 2 diabetes (T2D), often seen as a complication of obesity, accelerates the progression of CKD. Insulin resistance, commonly seen in T2D, alters kidney function, leading to obesity-related kidney disease. These findings underline the importance of managing obesity and diabetes to prevent or slow the progression of CKD.

Randomized Controlled Trials: A Ray of Hope

Several randomized controlled trials show promising results in treating CKD in obesity and T2D patients. Treatments with sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues (GLP-1a), and bariatric surgery have shown renoprotective effects. However, the data on combination therapies involving these treatments remain limited.

Implementing Strategies for Diabetic Kidney Disease Management

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In light of these findings, clinicians treating patients with obesity and CKD should consider incorporating SGLT2i, GLP-1a, and bariatric surgery in their treatment plans. The benefits of these treatments, as demonstrated by recent studies, may offer significant improvements in patient outcomes. Further research is required to better understand the effects of combination therapies and to effectively address the treatment of patients with obesity and CKD. With the high prevalence of obesity among the CKD population, prioritizing this area of research is crucial.

Source:

Wahab, R. A., Cohen, R. V., & Roux, C. W. L. (2023). Recent advances in the treatment of patients with obesity and chronic kidney disease. Annals of Medicine, 55(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2023.2203517