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A recent review article explored the effects of sleep behaviors and disorders on the progression of pre-diabetes to type 2 DM and found positive associations with insomnia, night shift duty, and short sleep duration.

Certain sleep disorders, including short/long sleep duration (SD), insomnia, daytime napping, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and changes in the sleep–wake cycle, are related to an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is uncertainty about the role of sleep disorders in the progression of pre-diabetes to T2DM. A systematic review and meta-analysis, published in the journal Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research, evaluated the literature for the association of sleep disorders with the progression of pre-diabetes to T2DM.
The study included a total of six articles. Of these, three studies with a total of 20,139 patients were subjected to meta-analysis, which revealed that short SD was associated with an increased risk of progression of pre-diabetes to T2DM. This association did not hold for patients with long SD. The systematic review of the articles demonstrated that night-shift duty and insomnia were each associated with a higher rate of progression of pre-diabetes to T2DM.
Several mechanisms can explain the association between the incidence of T2DM and short sleep duration. This includes hormonal changes in catecholamines, melatonin, and cortisol, which affect glucose tolerance. Habitual short SD leads to sympathetic predominance that leads to lower insulin sensitivity. Sleep restriction also contributes to insulin resistance.
This study emphasized the importance of sleep extension as a helpful strategy in preventing the development of T2DM in individuals with pre-diabetes. The study also highlighted the need for more robust evidence to support the existing data. In summary, short SD, night-shift duty, and insomnia are associated with an increased risk for pre-diabetes progression to T2DM.

Mostafa, S. A., Mena, S. C., Antza, C., Balanos, G., Nirantharakumar, K., & Tahrani, A. A. (2022). Sleep behaviours and associated habits and the progression of pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research, 19(3), 14791641221088824. https://doi.org/10.1177/14791641221088824

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