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Medically reviewed by Dr. Kimberly Langdon Cull, M.D. on August 25, 2023

CXCL5 levels significantly declined with fingolimod treatment in this study. However, serum CXCL5 levels did not distinguish between MS and NMOSD.

The levels of epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78, also known as C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) are associated with the severity of disease in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, there is no correlation between CXCL5 levels and disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS). 

This study aimed to investigate the role of CXCL5 in differentiating between NMOSD and MS and predicting therapeutic response in MS. The findings are published in the journal Northern Clinics of Istanbul.

Baseline Characteristics

A total of 14 healthy controls, 20 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 15 MS with predominant spinal cord and optic nerve attacks (MS-SCON), and ten NMOSD patients were included. The MS-SCON and NMOSD patients had been receiving immunomodulating treatment.

Differences in CXCL5 Levels

Compared to MS-SCON and NMOSD patients, the levels of CXCL5 in healthy controls were significantly higher. The levels of CXCL5 across MS-SCON and NMOSD patients were similar. Based on Pearson’s correlation test results, CXCL5 levels were not correlated with the number of attacks, disease duration, or Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. 

Post-Treatment CXCL5 Levels

There was no significant difference in the levels of CXCL5 in RRMS patients and healthy controls; however, the levels significantly decreased following fingolimod treatment. The CXCL5 levels were significantly lower in RRMS patients compared to healthy controls after treatment. There were no significant differences in CXCL5 levels across treatment-unresponsive and treatment-responsive patients.

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Limitations of the Study

There are two primary limitations to this study. First, the sample size was small. In addition, patients with NMOSD and MS-SCON were already undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, which may have affected the results. Due to the need for long-term follow-up, identifying these patients during the untreated phase was challenging.


Karaaslan, Z., Yilmaz, V., Yuceer, H., Sanli, E., Akcay, H. I., Kurtuncu, M., Turkoglu, R., & Tuzun, E. (2023). Serum CXCL5 as a biomarker in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Northern Clinics of Istanbul, 10(3), 341–344. https://doi.org/10.14744/nci.2022.77861