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Menopausal symptoms are not associated with physical activity and blood pressure in middle-aged women, and these symptoms are not predictive of changes in cardiometabolic risk.

There is an increase in the incidence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease at the time of menopausal transition, which can be attributed to changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. This cross-sectional and longitudinal study aimed to assess the association between cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk factors and menopausal symptoms and the predictive value of these risk factors. It was concluded that there is no independent association between menopausal symptoms and CMD risk factors, and these symptoms may not predict changes in the risk factors during the menopausal transition. The findings are published in the journal Maturitas.

Baseline Characteristics

The study participants were distributed across pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal groups. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the participants was 25.5 kg/m2. Psychological and vasomotor symptoms were most frequently reported by the participants.

Cross-Sectional Analyses of Vasomotor Symptoms and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

The cross-sectional analyses indicate a positive association between cholesterol levels and vasomotor symptoms. The total, vasomotor, and urogenital symptoms were related to high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol. The vasomotor symptoms were related to high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); however, these associations disappeared following the adjustment for confounders. The adjustment of models did not influence the positive association of higher android and total fat mass with higher total symptoms.

Longitudinal Analyses of Vasomotor Symptoms and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

The results of the longitudinal analyses in unadjusted models indicate an association between a higher number of vasomotor symptoms and higher levels of LDL-C and total cholesterol. While higher systolic blood pressure was recorded in participants experiencing greater somatic, urogenital, and psychological symptoms, lower systolic blood pressure was recorded in patients experiencing more vasomotor symptoms.

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Associations Between Menopausal Status, BMI, and Key Cardiovascular Risk Factors

There was a positive association between menopausal status and levels of HDL-C, total cholesterol, and LDL-C and between BMI and levels of blood pressure, LDL-C, triglycerides, and glucose.


Hyvärinen, M., Karvanen, J., Juppi, H., Karppinen, J. E., Tammelin, T. H., Kovanen, V., Aukee, P., Sipilä, S., Rantalainen, T., & Laakkonen, E. K. (2023b). Menopausal symptoms and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged women: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study with 4-year follow-up. Maturitas, 174, 39–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2023.05.004