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Medically reviewed by Dr. Kimberly Langdon Cull, M.D. on July 25, 2023

Higher serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are positively related to the risk of early-onset vasomotor symptoms in premenopausal women.

The predominant symptoms evident during the menopausal transition are vasomotor symptoms, including night sweats and hot flashes. Long-lasting and severe vasomotor symptoms tend to be associated with obesity, adverse cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors. 

This study investigated the association between a greater risk of early-onset vasomotor symptoms and adverse lipid profiles in premenopausal women. The findings were published in the journal Scientific Reports.  

Characteristics of the Study Population

Out of 2450 vasomotor symptom-free premenopausal women at baseline, 1243 women experienced early-onset vasomotor symptoms during the follow-up period. The mean age and body mass index (BMI) of the study participants were 44.6 ± 2.3 years and 22.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2, respectively.

Early-Onset Vasomotor Symptoms and Lipid Profiles

The incidence rate of early-onset vasomotor symptoms in premenopausal women at baseline was 11.1 per 100 person-years. There was a significant association between higher LDL cholesterol levels and increased early-onset vasomotor symptom risk. However, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were not significantly related to incident vasomotor symptoms.

Moderate or Severe Vasomotor Symptoms and Lipid Profiles

The sensitivity analysis results indicated a significant association between an increased moderate/severe vasomotor symptom risk and LDL cholesterol levels in premenopausal women. On the contrary, the association between other moderate/severe vasomotor symptoms and other lipids was insignificant.


Choi, H. J., Chang, Y., Kim, Y., Kang, J., Kwon, M., Kwon, R., Lim, G., Kim, K., Kim, H., Hong, Y., Zhao, D., Cho, J., Guallar, E., Park, H. Y., & Ryu, S. (2022). High low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is associated with an increased risk of incident early-onset vasomotor symptoms. Scientific Reports, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-19028-4 

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